This page is a translated version of the page Getting started and the translation is 18% complete.

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FreeCAD este o aplicatie parametrica de modelare CAD/CAE. Este in stadiul initial de dezvoltare asa ca nu va asteptati sa poata fi folosita in munca de zi cu zi. Totusi, daca sunteti curios despre cum arata si ce functionalitati vor fi prezente sunteti binevenit sa descarcati aplicatia si s-o incercati. In acest moment o mare parte a functionalitatii a fost implementata dar sunt putine elemente de interfata grafica pentru utilizator. Asta inseamna ca, daca stiti Python puteti produce si modifica geometrii complexe relativ usor. Daca nu, probabil veti descoperi ca FreeCAD are putine sa va ofere. Aveti rabdare, lucrurile sunt pe cale sa se schimbe in curand.

Daca dupa testare aveti comentarii, idei sau opinii, va rugam sa ni le impartaziti folosind FreeCAD discussion forumul!

FreeCAD is a 3D CAD/CAE parametric modeling application. It is primarily made for mechanical design, but also serves all other uses where you need to model 3D objects with precision and control over modeling history.

FreeCAD is still in the early stages of development, so, although it already offers you a large (and growing) list of features, much is still missing, specially comparing it to commercial solutions, and you might not find it developed enough yet for use in production environment. Still, there is a fast-growing community of enthusiastic users, and you can already find many examples of quality projects developed with FreeCAD.

Like all open-source projects, the FreeCAD project is not a one-way work delivered to you by its developers. It depends much on its community to grow, gain features, and stabilize (get bugs fixed). So don't forget this when starting to use FreeCAD, if you like it, you can directly influence and help the project!

Instalare

Mai intai, daca nu ati facut asta deja, instalati FreeCAD. Vedeti pagina de descarcari pentru informatii despre versiunea curenta si actualizari. Pachete de instalare au fost pregatite pentru Windows (.msi), Ubuntui si Debian (.deb), openSUSE (.rpm) si Mac OSX.

First of all (if not done already) download and install FreeCAD. See the Download page for information about current versions and updates, and the Installing page for information about how to install FreeCAD. There are install packages ready for Windows (.msi), Ubuntu & Debian (.deb) openSUSE (.rpm) and Mac OSX. As FreeCAD is open-source, if you are adventurous, but want to have a look at the brand-new features being developed right now, you can also grab the source code and compile FreeCAD yourself.

Explorarea aplicatiei FreeCAD

Interfata cand porniti FreeCAD pentru prima data. Vedeti mai multe capturi aici.

FreeCAD este o aplicatie de modelare 3D de uz general axata in principal pe ingineria mecanica si ariile conexe, precum alte specialitati ingineresti si arhitectura. Este conceputa ca o platforma pentru dezvoltarea oricarei aplicatii 3D dar si pentru sarcini foarte specializate. In aceasta idee interfata este impartita intr-o serie de palete. Acestea permit schimbarea continutului interfetei pentru a afisa doar uneltele necesare pentru o sarcina data sau un grup de sarcini.

Interfata FreeCAD poate fi descrisa ca fiind un container siumplu cu bara de meniu, zona de vizualizare 3D si un numar de ferestre secundare pentru descrierea continutului scenei sau proprietatilor obiectelor. Intreg continutul poate sa difere in functie de paleta folosita.

Cand porniti FreeCAD pentru prima data paleta "generala" wa fi incarcata (numita si "paleta completa"). Aceasta aduna cele mai stabile unelte din celelalte palete. De vreme ce FreeCAD est inca in faza initiala de dezvoltare aceasta paleta este foarte utila in descoperirea utilitarelor si functionalitatilor pentru utilizatorii noi. In mare toate uneltele ce sunt suficient de mature pentru a produce rezultate bune se gasesc aici.

Freecad-interface.jpg


  1. The 3D view, showing the contents of your document
  2. The tree view, which shows the hierarchy and construction history of all the objects in your document
  3. The properties editor, which allows you to view and modify properties of the selected object(s)
  4. The report view (or output window), which is where FreeCAD prints messages, warnings and errors
  5. The python console, where all the commands executed by FreeCAD are printed, and where you can enter python code
  6. The workbench selector, where you select the active workbench


The main concept behind the FreeCAD interface is that it is separated into workbenches. A workbench is a collection of tools suited for a specific task, such as working with meshes, or drawing 2D objects, or constrained sketches. You can switch the current workbench with the workbench selector (6). You can customize the tools included in each workbench, add tools from other workbenches or even self-created tools, that we call macros. There is also a generic workbench which gathers the most commonly used tools from other workbenches, called the complete workbench.

When you start FreeCAD for the first time, you are presented with the start center:


Startcenter.jpg


The Start Center allows you to quickly jump to one of the most common workbenches, open one of the recent files, or see the latest news from the FreeCAD world. You can change the default workbench in the preferences.

Navigarea in spatiul 3D

FreeCAD are trei moduri de navigare cu mouse-ul ce pot fi schimbate din dialogul pentru preferinte sau folosind meniul contextual ce apare facand click-dreapta in vizualizarea 3D. Pentru detalii complete despre modurile de navigare vizitati pagina dedicata. Pentru modul implicit ("Navigare CAD"), comenzile sunt prezentate mai jos:

Selectare Translatie Zoom Rotire
Hand cursor.png Pan cursor.png Zoom cursor.png Rotate cursor.png
pentru selectie pentru translatie pentru a mari sau micsora pentru a roti vizualizarea
Apasati butonul stanga al mouse-ului deasupra obiectului de selectat. Apasarea tastei CTRL permite selectarea mai multor obiecte. Apasati butonul din mijloc si miscati mouse-ul pentru a translata vizualizarea. Folositi rotita mouse-ului pentru a mari sau micsora. Apasati mai intai butonul din mijloc al mouse-ului, tineti-l apasat si apasati butonul stanga al mouse-ului si mutati-l in directia dorita. Functioneaza ca o bila ce se roteste in jurul centrului. Daca eliberati butoanele inainte de a inceta miscarea vizualizarea va continua sa se roteascain jurul centrului, daca aceasta caracteristica e activata. Dublu-click folosind butonul mijlociu pe oricare parte a unui obiect seteaza noul centru de rotatie si panorameaza pe acest punct.


Exista moduri de vizualizare predefinite (de sus, din fata, etc) ce se schimba folosind meniul Vizualizare, comenzile din bara de unelte Vizualizare sau scurtaturile numerice (1, 2, etc...)


Workbench Draft.png Proiectarea 2D

Desenarea obiectelor

Aceste unelte se folosesc la crearea obiectelor.

  • Draft Line.png Linie din 2 puncte: Deseneaza un segment de linie din 2 puncte
  • Draft Wire.png Polilinie: Deseneaza o linie din mai multe segmente
  • Draft Circle.png Cerc: Deseneaza un cerc dupa centru si raza
  • Draft Arc.png Arc: Deseneaza un arc dupa centru, raza, unghi de inceput si de sfarsit
  • Draft Rectangle.png Rectangle: Deseneaza undreptunghi folosind capetele diagonalei
  • Draft Polygon.png Poligon: Deseneaza un poligon regulat dupa centru si raza
  • Draft BSpline.png BSpline: Deseneaza o curba (B-Spline) dintr-o serie de puncte
  • Draft Text.png Text: Deseneaza o ceseta text ce permite mai multe linii
  • Draft Dimension.png Dimensiuni: Deseneaza o dimensiune
  • Draft Point.png Punct: Insereaza un punct

Modificarea obiectelor

Aceste unelte modifica obiectele existente. Tinta lor sunt obiectele selectate iar, daca nu exista nici o selectie, veti fi invitat sa selectati.

  • Draft Move.png Muta: Muta obiectele dintr-o locatie in alta
  • Draft Rotate.png Rotire: Roteste obiectele de la un unghi de inceput la un unghi final
  • Draft Offset.png Expandare: Muta segmentele unui obiect la o anumita distanta constanta
  • Draft Upgrade.png Unire: Uneste obiectele intr-un singur obiect complex
  • Draft Downgrade.png Explodare: Sparge un obiect complex in obiecte componente mai simple
  • Draft Trimex.png Taie/Extinde (Trimex): Taie sau extinde un obiect
  • Draft Scale.png Scalare: Scaleaza obiectele selectate in jurul punctului de baza
  • Draft Edit.png Editare: Editeaza obiectul selectat
  • Draft PutOnSheet.png Desenare: Scrie obiectele selectate pe o foaie de desen
  • Draft Shape2DView.png Vizualizare 2D a formei: Creaza un obiect 2D care reprezinta proiectia unui obiect 3D
  • Draft WireToBSpline.png Polilinie in BSpline: Converteste o polilinie intr-o curba (BSpline) si viceversa
  • Draft AddPoint.png Adauga punct: Insereaza un punct intr-o polilinie sau curba (BSpline)
  • Draft DelPoint.png Sterge point: Sterge un punct dintr-o polilinie sau curba (BSpline)
  • Draft Draft2Sketch.png Ciorna in schita: Converteste o ciorna in schita si viceversa
  • Draft Array.png Multimi: Creaza o multime polara sau rectangulara din obiectele selectate
  • Draft Clone.png Clonare: Clonaeza obiectele selectate

Utilitare

Instrumente suplimentare sunt disponibile prin meniul contextual (clic-dreapta), în functie de obiectele selectate.


Workbench Part.png Crearea de piese 3D

Primitive

Acestea sunt unelte pentru crearea de primitive grafice.

  • Part Box.png Caseta: Deseneaza o caseta prin specificarea dimensiunile sale
  • Part Cone.png Con: Deseneaza un con prin specificarea dimensiunile sale
  • Part Cylinder.png Cilindru: Deseneaza un cilindru prin specificarea dimensiunile sale
  • Part Sphere.png Sfera: Deseneaza o sfera prin specificarea dimensiunile sale
  • Part Torus.png Tor: Deseneaza un tor (inel) prin specificarea dimensiunile sale
  • Part CreatePrimitives.png Creaza primitive: Unealta pentru crearea primitivelor geometrice bazate pe parametrii
  • Part Shapebuilder.png Creaza forme: Unealta pentru crearea formelor complexe din primitive geometrice bazate pe parametrii

Modificarea obiectelor

Acestea sunt unelte pentru modificarea obiectelor existente. Ele permit alegerea obiectelor cu care se lucreaza.

  • Part Booleans.png Logice: Efectueaza operatii logice asupra obiectelor
  • Part Union.png Fuziune: Uneste doua obiecte
  • Part Common.png Comun: Extrage partea comuna a doua obiecte
  • Part Cut.png Decupare: Substrage on obiect din celalalt
  • Part Extrude.png Extrudare: Extrudeaza fetele plane ale unui obiect
  • Part Fillet.png Panglica: Rotunjeste marginile unui obiect
  • Part Revolve.png Rotatie: Creaza un obiect prin rotirea altui obiect in jurul unei axe
  • Part Section.png Sectiune: Creaza o sectiune prin intersectarea unui obiect cu planul de sectionare
  • Part Chamfer.png Tesire: Teseste marginile unui obiect
  • Part Mirror.png Oglindire: Oglindeste obiectul selectat fata de un plan
  • Part Sweep.png Curatare: Curata unul sau mai multe profile de-a lungul unei cai
  • Part Loft.png Pod: Uneste un profil de altul


Exportul desenelor 2D

Unelte pentru crearea, configurarea si exportul foilor de desen 2D


Exportul pentru vizualizare externa

Unelte pentru exportul modelelor 3D pentru a fi vizualizate extern


FreeCAD has several different navigation modes available, that change the way you use your mouse to interact with the objects in the 3D view and the view itself. One of them is specifically made for touchpads, where the middle mouse button is not used. The following table describes the default mode, called CAD Navigation (You can quickly change the current navigation mode by right-clicking on an empty area of the 3D view):


Select Pan Zoom Rotate View Rotate View

Alternate Method

Hand cursor.png Pan cursor.png Zoom cursor.png Rotate cursor.png Rotate cursor.png
to Select to Pan to Zoom in or out to Rotate view to Rotate view
Press the left mouse button over an object you want to select. Holding down ctrl allows the selection of multiple objects. Click the middle mouse button and move the object around to pan Use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out. Clicking the middle mouse button re-centers the view to the location of the cursor. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the left mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. The cursor location at the middle mouse button click determines the center of rotation. Rotation works like spinning a ball which rotates around its center. If the buttons are released before you stop the mouse motion, the object continues spinning, if this is enabled. A double click with the middle mouse button sets a new center of rotation. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the right mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. This method works just like the previously described Rotate View that uses Middle Mouse Button + Left Mouse Button, except that the middle mouse button may be released after the right mouse button is pressed. Users who use the mouse with their right hand may find this Rotate View method easier than the previous method.
to Pan to Zoom to rotate
Press and hold Ctrl key and click and release right mouse button to pan (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, press and release left mouse button to Zoom, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, click and momentary hold left mouse button to rotate, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14)


You also have several view presets (top view, front view, etc) available in the View menu and on the View toolbar, and by numeric shortcuts (1, 2, etc...), and by right-clicking on an object or on an empty area of the 3D view, you have quick access to some common operations, such as setting a particular view, or locating an object in the Tree view.

First steps with FreeCAD

FreeCAD's focus is to allow you to make high-precision 3D models, to keep tight control over those models (being able to go back into modelling history and change parameters), and eventually to build those models (via 3D printing, CNC machining or even construction worksite). It is therefore very different from some other 3D applications made for other purposes, such as animation film or gaming. Its learning curve can be steep, specially if this is your first contact with 3D modeling. If you are struck at some point, don't forget that the friendly community of users on the FreeCAD forum might be able to get you out in no time.

The workbench you will start using in FreeCAD depends on the type of job you need to do: If you are going to work on mechanical models, or more generally any small-scale objects, you'll probably want to try the PartDesign Workbench. If you will work in 2D, then switch to the Draft Workbench, or the Sketcher Workbench if you need constraints. If you want to do BIM, launch the Arch Workbench. If you are working with ship design, there is a special Ship Workbench for you. And if you come from the OpenSCAD world, try the OpenSCAD Workbench.

You can switch workbenches at any time, and also customize your favorite workbench to add tools from other workbenches.

Working with the PartDesign and Sketcher workbenches

The PartDesign Workbench is specially made to build complex objects, starting from simple shapes, and adding or removing pieces (that we call "features"), until you get to your final object. All the features you applied during the modelling process are stored in a separate view called the tree view, which also contains the other objects in your document. You can think of a PartDesign object as a succession of operations, each one applied to the result of the preceding one, forming one big chain. In the tree view, you see your final object, but you can expand it and retrieve all preceding states, and change any of their parameter, which automatically updates the final object.

The PartDesign workbench makes heavy use of another workbench, the Sketcher Workbench. The sketcher allows you to draw 2D shapes, which are defined by applying Constraints to the 2D shape. For example, you might draw a rectangle and set the size of a side by applying a length constraint to one of the sides. That side then cannot be resized anymore (unless the constraint is changed).

Those 2D shapes made with the sketcher are used a lot in the PartDesign workbench, for example to create 3D volumes, or to draw areas on the faces of your object that will then be hollowed from its main volume. This is a typical PartDesign workflow:

  1. Create a new sketch
  2. Draw a closed shape (make sure all points are joined)
  3. Close the sketch
  4. Expand the sketch into a 3D solid by using the pad tool
  5. Select one face of the solid
  6. Create a second sketch (this time it will be drawn on the selected face)
  7. Draw a closed shape
  8. Close the sketch
  9. Create a pocket from the second sketch, on the first object

Which gives you an object like this:

Partdesign example.jpg

At any moment, you can select the original sketches and modify them, or change the extrusion parameters of the pad or pocket operations, which will update the final object.

Working with the Draft and Arch workbenches

The Draft Workbench and Arch Workbench behave a bit differently than the other workbenches above, although they follow the same rules, which are common to all of FreeCAD. In short, while the Sketcher and PartDesign are made primarily to design single pieces, Draft and Arch are made to ease your work when working with several, simpler objects.

The Draft Workbench offers you 2D tools a bit similar to what you can find in traditional 2D CAD applications such as AutoCAD. However, 2D drafting being far away from the scope of FreeCAD, don't expect to find there the full array of tools that these dedicated applications offer. Most of the Draft tools work not only in a 2D plane but also in the full 3D space, and benefit from special helper systems such as Work planes and object snapping.

The Arch Workbench adds BIM tools to FreeCAD, allowing you to build architectural models with parametric objects. The Arch workbench relies much on other modules such as Draft and Sketcher. All the Draft tools are also present in the Arch workbench, and most Arch tools make use of the Draft helper systems.

A typical workflow with Arch and Draft workbenches might be:

  1. Draw a couple of lines with the Draft Line tool
  2. Select each line and press the Wall tool to build a wall on each of them
  3. Join the walls by selecting them and pressing the Arch Add tool
  4. Create a floor object, and move your walls in it from the Tree view
  5. Create a building object, and move your floor in it from the Tree view
  6. Create a window by clicking the Window tool, select a preset in its panel, then click on a face of a wall
  7. Add dimensions by first setting the working plane if necessary, then using the Draft Dimension tool

Which will give you this:

Arch workflow example.jpg

More on the Tutorials page.

Script-area

Una dintre cele mai puternice caracteristici ale FreeCAD este mediul de scriptare. De la consola integrata Python (sau oricare alt script extern Python) se poate controla aproape orice parte a programului, se pot crea si modifica geometrii, se poate modifica reprezentarea obiectelor in scena 3D sau accesa si modifica interfata FreeCAD. Script-urile Python pot fi folosite si in macroinstructiuni, ceea ce furnizeaza o metoda usoara de creare a comenzilor customizate.

And finally, one of the most powerful features of FreeCAD is the scripting environment. From the integrated python console (or from any other external Python script), you can gain access to almost any part of FreeCAD, create or modify geometry, modify the representation of those objects in the 3D scene or access and modify the FreeCAD interface. Python scripting can also be used in macros, which provide an easy method to create custom commands.


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