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Apa yang baru

Pendahuluan

FreeCAD adalah aplikasi parametrik modeling CAD/CAE. FreeCAD masih dalam tahap awal pengembang, jadi jangan berharap dapat menggunakannya untuk menghasilkan pekerjaan seperti aplikasi CAD yang telah populer.

Tapi, jika kamu ingin tahu seperti FreeCAD itu dan fitur apa saja yang sedang dikembangkan, Anda dipersilakan untuk mengunduhnya dan mencobanya. Pada saat ini, banyak fungsi yang sudah ada, tapi masih banyak antarmuka pengguna yang belum dibuat. Namun jika kamu tahu sedikit tentang Python, kamu akan mampu menghasilkan dan memodifikasi geometri yang kompleks dengan relatif mudah. Jika tidak, mungkin kamu akan menemukan bahwa FreeCAD masih belum sempurna untukmu. Tapi, bersabarlah, hal ini diharapkan segera berubah.

Dan jika setelah mencoba kamu punya saran, ide atau opini, silahkan dibagi dengan kami di FreeCAD discussion forum!

Instalasi

Pertama (jika belum) unduh dan instal FreeCAD. Lihat halaman Download untuk informasi tentang versi terbaru dan updatenya. Terdapat paket instalasi siap pakai untuk Windows (.msi), Ubuntu & Debian (.deb), openSUSE (.rpm) dan Mac OSX. See the Instal page for information about how to install FreeCAD.

Explorasi FreeCAD

The FreeCAD interface when you start it for the first time. See more screenshots here.

FreeCAD adalah aplikasi 3D modeling untuk semua kebutuhan, difokuskan pada teknik mesin dan bidang terkait, seperti spesialisasi teknik lain atau arsitektur. Hal ini dijadikan dasar sebagai platform untuk mengembangkan berbagai jenis aplikasi 3D, tetapi juga untuk melakukan tugas-tugas yang sangat spesifik. Untuk tujuan itu, antarmuka dibagi menjadi beberapa Workbenches. Workbenches memungkinkan untuk mengubah isi antarmuka untuk menampilkan semua dan hanya alat yang diperlukan untuk tugas tertentu, atau kelompok tugas.

Antarmuka FreeCAD dapat digambarkan sebagai wadah yang sangat sederhana, dengan menu bar, area tampilan 3D, dan beberapa panel samping untuk menampilkan gambaran isi atau properti obyek. Semua isi dari panel ini dapat diubah tergantung pada workbench.

Ketika kamu mulai FreeCAD untuk pertama kalinya, kamu akan disajikan sebuah workbench "umum", yang kita sebut "complete workbench". Workbench ini hanya menampilkan alat yang paling matang dari workbenches lainnya. Karena FreeCAD cukup muda dan belum digunakan untuk pekerjaan yang sangat khusus, workbench ini sangat berguna untuk menjadikan FreeCAD lebih mudah. Pada dasarnya, semua alat disini sudah cukup baik untuk menghasilkan geometri.

Freecad default.jpg


  1. The 3D view, showing the contents of your document
  2. The tree view, which shows the hierarchy and construction history of all the objects in your document
  3. The properties editor, which allows you to view and modify properties of the selected object(s)
  4. The report view (or output window), which is where FreeCAD prints messages, warnings and errors
  5. The python console, where all the commands executed by FreeCAD are printed, and where you can enter python code
  6. The workbench selector, where you select the active workbench


The main concept behind the FreeCAD interface is that it is separated into workbenches. A workbench is a collection of tools suited for a specific task, such as working with meshes, or drawing 2D objects, or constrained sketches. You can switch the current workbench with the workbench selector (6). You can customize the tools included in each workbench, add tools from other workbenches or even self-created tools, that we call macros. There is also a generic workbench which gathers the most commonly used tools from other workbenches, called the complete workbench.

When you start FreeCAD for the first time, you are presented with the start center:


Startcenter.jpg


The Start Center allows you to quickly jump to one of the most common workbenches, open one of the recent files, or see the latest news from the FreeCAD world. You can change the default workbench in the preferences.

Navigasi di Area 3D

FreeCAD memiliki tiga mode navigasi berbeda yang tersedia, yang dapat diatur dalam dialog pengaturan preferensi atau diubah dengan mengklik kanan dalam tampilan 3D. Untuk informasi lengkap tentang mode, lihat Mouse Model page. Untuk mode default ("CAD Navigation"), perintah adalah sebagai berikut,

Select Pan Zoom Rotate View Rotate View

Alternate Method

Hand cursor.png Pan cursor.png Zoom cursor.png Rotate cursor.png Rotate cursor.png
to Select to Pan to Zoom in or out to Rotate view to Rotate view
Press the left mouse button over an object you want to select. Holding down ctrl allows the selection of multiple objects. Click the middle mouse button and move the object around to pan Use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out. Clicking the middle mouse button re-centers the view to the location of the cursor. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the left mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. The cursor location at the middle mouse button click determines the center of rotation. Rotation works like spinning a ball which rotates around its center. If the buttons are released before you stop the mouse motion, the object continues spinning, if this is enabled. A double click with the middle mouse button sets a new center of rotation. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the right mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. This method works just like the previously described Rotate View that uses Middle Mouse Button + Left Mouse Button, except that the middle mouse button may be released after the right mouse button is pressed. Users who use the mouse with their right hand may find this Rotate View method easier than the previous method.
to Pan to Zoom to rotate
Press and hold Ctrl key and click and release right mouse button to pan (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, press and release left mouse button to Zoom, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, click and momentary hold left mouse button to rotate, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14)


Anda juga memiliki beberapa pandangan(view) yang tersedia (tampak atas, tampak depan, dll) yang tersedia di menu View dan pada toolbar View, dan dengan cara jalan pintas numerik ( 1, 2, dll. .)

Workbench Draft.png 2D Drafting

Drawing objects

These are tools for creating objects.

  • Draft Line.png Line: Draws a line segment between 2 points
  • Draft Wire.png Wire: Draws a line made of multiple line segments (polyline)
  • Draft Circle.png Circle: Draws a circle from center and radius
  • Draft Arc.png Arc: Draws an arc segment from center, radius, start angle and end angle
  • Draft Ellipse.png Ellipse: Draws an ellipse from two corner points
  • Draft Polygon.png Polygon: Draws a regular polygon from a center and a radius
  • Draft Rectangle.png Rectangle: Draws a rectangle from 2 opposite points
  • Draft Text.png Text: Draws a multi-line text annotation
  • Draft Dimension.png Dimension: Draws a dimension annotation
  • Draft BSpline.png BSpline: Draws a B-Spline from a series of points
  • Draft Point.png Point: Inserts a point object
  • Draft ShapeString.png ShapeString: The ShapeString tool inserts a compound shape representing a text string at a given point in the current document
  • Draft Facebinder.png Facebinder: Creates a new object from selected faces on existing objects
  • Draft BezCurve.png Bezier Curve: Draws a Bezier curve from a series of points

Modifying objects

These are tools for modifying existing objects. They work on selected objects, but if no object is selected, you will be invited to select one.

  • Draft Move.png Move: Moves object(s) from one location to another
  • Draft Rotate.png Rotate: Rotates object(s) from a start angle to an end angle
  • Draft Offset.png Offset: Moves segments of an object about a certain distance
  • Draft Trimex.png Trim/Extend (Trimex): Trims or extends an object
  • Draft Upgrade.png Upgrade: Joins objects into a higher-level object
  • Draft Downgrade.png Downgrade: Explodes objects into lower-level objects
  • Draft Scale.png Scale: Scales selected object(s) around a base point
  • Draft PutOnSheet.png Drawing: Writes selected objects to a Drawing sheet
  • Draft Edit.png Edit: Edits a selected object
  • Draft WireToBSpline.png Wire to BSpline: Converts a wire to a BSpline and vice-versa
  • Draft AddPoint.png Add point: Adds a point to a wire or BSpline
  • Draft DelPoint.png Delete point: Deletes a point from a wire or BSpline
  • Draft Shape2DView.png Shape 2D View: Creates a 2D object which is a flattened 2D view of another 3D object
  • Draft Draft2Sketch.png Draft to Sketch: Converts a Draft object to Sketch and vice-versa
  • Draft Array.png Array: Creates a polar or rectangular array from selected objects
  • Draft PathArray.png Path Array: Creates an array of objects by placing the copies along a path
  • Draft Clone.png Clone: Clones the selected objects
  • Draft Mirror.png Mirror: Mirrors the selected objects
  • Draft Stretch.png Stretch: Stretches the selected objects

Utility tools

Additional tools available via right-click context menu, depending on the selected objects.



Workbench Part.png Membuat Part 3D

Primitives

These are tools for creating primitive objects.

  • Part Box.png Box: Draws a box by specifying its dimensions
  • Part Cone.png Cone: Draws a cone by specifying its dimensions
  • Part Cylinder.png Cylinder: Draws a cylinder by specifying its dimensions
  • Part Sphere.png Sphere: Draws a sphere by specifying its dimensions
  • Part Torus.png Torus: Draws a torus (ring) by specifying its dimensions
  • Part CreatePrimitives.png CreatePrimitives: A tool to create various parametric geometric primitives
  • Part Shapebuilder.png Shapebuilder: A tool to create more complex shapes from various parametric geometric primitives

Modifying objects

These are tools for modifying existing objects. They will allow you to choose which object to modify.

  • Part Booleans.png Booleans: Performs boolean operations on objects
  • Part Union.png Union: Fuses (unions) two objects
  • Part Common.png Common: Extracts the common (intersection) part of two objects
  • Part Cut.png Cut: Cuts (subtracts) one object from another
  • Part JoinConnect.png Join features: smart booleans for walled objects (e.g., pipes) (v0.16)
    • Part JoinConnect.png Connect: Connects interiors of objects (v0.16)
    • Part JoinEmbed.png Embed: Embeds a walled object into another walled object (v0.16)
    • Part JoinCutout.png Cutout: Creates a cutout in a wall of an object for another walled object (v0.16)
  • Splitting tools: (v0.17)
    • Part BooleanFragments.png Boolean fragments: makes all the pieces that can be obtained by Boolean operations between objects (v0.17)
    • Part Slice.png Slice: Splits an object into pieces by intersections with another object (v0.17)
    • Part XOR.png XOR: removes space shared by even number of objects (symmetric version of Cut) (v0.17)
  • Part Extrude.png Extrude: Extrudes planar faces of an object
  • Part Fillet.png Fillet: Fillets (rounds) edges of an object
  • Part Revolve.png Revolve: Creates a solid by revolving another object (not solid) around an axis
  • Part Section.png Section: Creates a section by intersecting an object with a section plane
  • Part SectionCross.png Cross sections...:
  • Part Chamfer.png Chamfer: Chamfers edges of an object
  • Part Mirror.png Mirror: Mirrors the selected object on a given mirror plane
  • Part RuledSurface.png Ruled Surface:
  • Part Sweep.png Sweep: Sweeps one or more profiles along a path
  • Part Loft.png Loft: Lofts from one profile to another
  • Part Offset.png Offset: Creates a scaled copy of the original object.
  • Part Thickness.png Thickness: Assign a thickness to the faces of a shape.

Other tools

  • Part ImportCAD.png Import CAD: This tool allows you to add a file *.IGES, *.STEP, *.BREP to the current document.
  • Part ExportCAD.png Export CAD: This tool allows you to export a part object in a *.IGES, *.STEP, *.BREP file.
  • Part ShapeFromMesh.png Shape from Mesh: Creates a shape object from a mesh object.
  • Convert to solid: Converts a shape object to a solid object.
  • Reverse shapes: Flips the normals of all faces of the selected object.
  • Create simple copy: Creates a simple copy of the selected object.
  • Make compound: Creates a compound from the selected objects.
  • Part RefineShape.png Refine shape: Cleans faces by removing unnecessary lines.
  • Part CheckGeometry.png Check geometry: Checks the geometry of selected objects for errors.
  • Measure: Allows linear and angular measurement between points/edges/faces.



Ekspor ke gambar kerja 2D

These are tools for creating, configuring and exporting 2D drawing sheets

  • Drawing New.png Open scalable vector graphic: Opens a drawing sheet previously saved as an SVG file
  • Drawing Landscape A3.png New A3 landscape drawing: Creates a new drawing sheet from FreeCAD's default A3 template
  • Drawing View.png Insert a view: Inserts a view of the selected object in the active drawing sheet
  • Drawing Annotation.png Annotation: Adds an annotation to the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing Clip.png Clip: Adds a clip group to the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing Openbrowser.png Open Browser: Opens a preview of the current sheet in the browser
  • Drawing Orthoviews.png Ortho Views: Automatically creates orthographic views of an object on the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing Symbol.png Symbol: Adds the contents of a SVG file as a symbol on the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing DraftView.png Draft View: Inserts a special Draft view of the selected object in the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing SpreadsheetView.png Spreadsheet View: Inserts a view of a selected spreadsheet in the current drawing sheet
  • Drawing Save.png Save sheet: Saves the current sheet as a SVG file
  • Project Shape: Creates a projection of the selected object (Source) in the 3D view.


Ekspor ke external renderers

Raytracing project tools

These are the main tools for exporting your 3D work to external renderers

  • Raytracing New.png New PovRay project: Insert new PovRay project in the document
  • Raytracing Lux.png New LuxRender project: Insert new LuxRender project in the document
  • Raytracing InsertPart.png Insert part: Insert a view of a Part in a raytracing project
  • Raytracing ResetCamera.png Reset camera: Matches the camera position of a raytracing project to the current view
  • Raytracing ExportProject.png Export project: Exports a raytracing project to a scene file for rendering in an external renderer
  • Raytracing Render.png Render: Renders a raytracing project with an external renderer

Utilities

These are helper tools to perform specific tasks manually


FreeCAD has several different navigation modes available, that change the way you use your mouse to interact with the objects in the 3D view and the view itself. One of them is specifically made for touchpads, where the middle mouse button is not used. The following table describes the default mode, called CAD Navigation (You can quickly change the current navigation mode by right-clicking on an empty area of the 3D view):


Select Pan Zoom Rotate View Rotate View

Alternate Method

Hand cursor.png Pan cursor.png Zoom cursor.png Rotate cursor.png Rotate cursor.png
to Select to Pan to Zoom in or out to Rotate view to Rotate view
Press the left mouse button over an object you want to select. Holding down ctrl allows the selection of multiple objects. Click the middle mouse button and move the object around to pan Use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out. Clicking the middle mouse button re-centers the view to the location of the cursor. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the left mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. The cursor location at the middle mouse button click determines the center of rotation. Rotation works like spinning a ball which rotates around its center. If the buttons are released before you stop the mouse motion, the object continues spinning, if this is enabled. A double click with the middle mouse button sets a new center of rotation. Click first with the middle mouse button, hold it down, and then click the right mouse button and drag the mouse in the desired direction. This method works just like the previously described Rotate View that uses Middle Mouse Button + Left Mouse Button, except that the middle mouse button may be released after the right mouse button is pressed. Users who use the mouse with their right hand may find this Rotate View method easier than the previous method.
to Pan to Zoom to rotate
Press and hold Ctrl key and click and release right mouse button to pan (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, press and release left mouse button to Zoom, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14) Once in Pan mode, click and momentary hold left mouse button to rotate, to exit back to pan mode press and release right mouse button (rev 0.14)


You also have several view presets (top view, front view, etc) available in the View menu and on the View toolbar, and by numeric shortcuts (1, 2, etc...), and by right-clicking on an object or on an empty area of the 3D view, you have quick access to some common operations, such as setting a particular view, or locating an object in the Tree view.

First steps with FreeCAD

FreeCAD's focus is to allow you to make high-precision 3D models, to keep tight control over those models (being able to go back into modelling history and change parameters), and eventually to build those models (via 3D printing, CNC machining or even construction worksite). It is therefore very different from some other 3D applications made for other purposes, such as animation film or gaming. Its learning curve can be steep, specially if this is your first contact with 3D modeling. If you are struck at some point, don't forget that the friendly community of users on the FreeCAD forum might be able to get you out in no time.

The workbench you will start using in FreeCAD depends on the type of job you need to do: If you are going to work on mechanical models, or more generally any small-scale objects, you'll probably want to try the PartDesign Workbench. If you will work in 2D, then switch to the Draft Workbench, or the Sketcher Workbench if you need constraints. If you want to do BIM, launch the Arch Workbench. If you are working with ship design, there is a special Ship Workbench for you. And if you come from the OpenSCAD world, try the OpenSCAD Workbench.

You can switch workbenches at any time, and also customize your favorite workbench to add tools from other workbenches.

Working with the PartDesign and Sketcher workbenches

The PartDesign Workbench is specially made to build complex objects, starting from simple shapes, and adding or removing pieces (that we call "features"), until you get to your final object. All the features you applied during the modelling process are stored in a separate view called the tree view, which also contains the other objects in your document. You can think of a PartDesign object as a succession of operations, each one applied to the result of the preceding one, forming one big chain. In the tree view, you see your final object, but you can expand it and retrieve all preceding states, and change any of their parameter, which automatically updates the final object.

The PartDesign workbench makes heavy use of another workbench, the Sketcher Workbench. The sketcher allows you to draw 2D shapes, which are defined by applying Constraints to the 2D shape. For example, you might draw a rectangle and set the size of a side by applying a length constraint to one of the sides. That side then cannot be resized anymore (unless the constraint is changed).

Those 2D shapes made with the sketcher are used a lot in the PartDesign workbench, for example to create 3D volumes, or to draw areas on the faces of your object that will then be hollowed from its main volume. This is a typical PartDesign workflow:

  1. Create a new sketch
  2. Draw a closed shape (make sure all points are joined)
  3. Close the sketch
  4. Expand the sketch into a 3D solid by using the pad tool
  5. Select one face of the solid
  6. Create a second sketch (this time it will be drawn on the selected face)
  7. Draw a closed shape
  8. Close the sketch
  9. Create a pocket from the second sketch, on the first object

Which gives you an object like this:

Partdesign example.jpg

At any moment, you can select the original sketches and modify them, or change the extrusion parameters of the pad or pocket operations, which will update the final object.

Working with the Draft and Arch workbenches

The Draft Workbench and Arch Workbench behave a bit differently than the other workbenches above, although they follow the same rules, which are common to all of FreeCAD. In short, while the Sketcher and PartDesign are made primarily to design single pieces, Draft and Arch are made to ease your work when working with several, simpler objects.

The Draft Workbench offers you 2D tools a bit similar to what you can find in traditional 2D CAD applications such as AutoCAD. However, 2D drafting being far away from the scope of FreeCAD, don't expect to find there the full array of tools that these dedicated applications offer. Most of the Draft tools work not only in a 2D plane but also in the full 3D space, and benefit from special helper systems such as Work planes and object snapping.

The Arch Workbench adds BIM tools to FreeCAD, allowing you to build architectural models with parametric objects. The Arch workbench relies much on other modules such as Draft and Sketcher. All the Draft tools are also present in the Arch workbench, and most Arch tools make use of the Draft helper systems.

A typical workflow with Arch and Draft workbenches might be:

  1. Draw a couple of lines with the Draft Line tool
  2. Select each line and press the Wall tool to build a wall on each of them
  3. Join the walls by selecting them and pressing the Arch Add tool
  4. Create a floor object, and move your walls in it from the Tree view
  5. Create a building object, and move your floor in it from the Tree view
  6. Create a window by clicking the Window tool, select a preset in its panel, then click on a face of a wall
  7. Add dimensions by first setting the working plane if necessary, then using the Draft Dimension tool

Which will give you this:

Arch workflow example.jpg

More on the Tutorials page.

Scripting

Dan terakhir, satu dari banyak fitur yang paling handal di FreeCAD adalah scripting . Dari integrasi konsol python (atau dari eksternal skrip python yang lain), kamu dapat mengakses ke hampir semua bagian dari FreeCAD, membuat atau modifikasi geometri, memodifikasi representasi dari objek - objek dalam tampilan 3D atau akses dan memodifikasi antarmuka FreeCAD. Python scripting juga dapat digunakan dalam macro, yang menyediakan metode yang mudah untuk membuat perintah sesuai keinginkan kita.

And finally, one of the most powerful features of FreeCAD is the scripting environment. From the integrated python console (or from any other external Python script), you can gain access to almost any part of FreeCAD, create or modify geometry, modify the representation of those objects in the 3D scene or access and modify the FreeCAD interface. Python scripting can also be used in macros, which provide an easy method to create custom commands.


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